Kristi L. Helke

Title
InstitutionMedical University of South Carolina
DepartmentComparative Medicine
AddressP.O. Box MSC 777
642
Thurmond Gazes - 30 Courtenay Drive
Phone843-876-5202
Fax843-876-5210
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-9746-0764 Additional info
vCardDownload vCard

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    Newest   |   Oldest   |   Most Cited   |   Most Discussed   |   Timeline   |   Field Summary   |   Plain Text
    PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Helke KL, Gudi RR, Vasu C, Delaney JR. Combination of Autophagy Selective Therapeutics With Doxil: An Assessment of Pathological Toxicity. Front Toxicol. 2022; 4:937150. PMID: 35846434.
      Citations:    
    2. Wu Y, Mealer C, Schutt S, Wilson CL, Bastian D, Sofi MH, Zhang M, Luo Z, Choi HJ, Yang K, Tian L, Nguyen H, Helke K, Schnapp LM, Wang H, Yu XZ. MicroRNA-31 regulates T-cell metabolism via HIF1a and promotes chronic GVHD pathogenesis in mice. Blood Adv. 2022 05 24; 6(10):3036-3052. PMID: 35073581.
      Citations:    
    3. Sharma J, Rushing BR, Hall MS, Helke KL, McRitchie SL, Krupenko NI, Sumner SJ, Krupenko SA. Sex-Specific Metabolic Effects of Dietary Folate Withdrawal in Wild-Type and Aldh1l1 Knockout Mice. Metabolites. 2022 May 18; 12(5). PMID: 35629957.
      Citations:    
    4. Krisanits BA, Woods P, Nogueira LM, Woolfork DD, Lloyd CE, Baldwin A, Frye CC, Peterson KD, Cosh SD, Guo QJ, Spruill LS, Lilly MB, Helke K, Li H, Hanna GS, Hamann MT, Thomas C, Ahmed M, Gooz MB, Findlay VJ, Turner DP. Non-enzymatic glycoxidation linked with nutrition enhances the tumorigenic capacity of prostate cancer epithelia through AGE mediated activation of RAGE in cancer associated fibroblasts. Transl Oncol. 2022 Jan 25; 17:101350. PMID: 35091340.
      Citations:    
    5. Helke KL, Meyerholz DK, Beck AP, Burrough ER, Derscheid RJ, Löhr C, McInnes EF, Scudamore CL, Brayton CF. Research Relevant Background Lesions and Conditions: Ferrets, Dogs, Swine, Sheep, and Goats. ILAR J. 2021 12 31; 62(1-2):133-168. PMID: 33712827.
      Citations:    
    6. Chow RP, Nguyen K, Gou W, Green E, Morgan K, Lancaster W, Helke K, Strange C, Wang H. A Novel Cellular Therapy to Treat Pancreatic Pain in Experimental Chronic Pancreatitis Using Human Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Overexpressing Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. Biomedicines. 2021 Nov 16; 9(11). PMID: 34829924.
      Citations:    
    7. Krupenko NI, Sharma J, Fogle HM, Pediaditakis P, Strickland KC, Du X, Helke KL, Sumner S, Krupenko SA. Knockout of Putative Tumor Suppressor Aldh1l1 in Mice Reprograms Metabolism to Accelerate Growth of Tumors in a Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) Model of Liver Carcinogenesis. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Jun 28; 13(13). PMID: 34203215.
      Citations:    
    8. Wang X, Oates JC, Helke KL, Gilkeson GS, Zhang XK. Camptothecin and Topotecan, Inhibitors of Transcription Factor Fli-1 and Topoisomerase, Markedly Ameliorate Lupus Nephritis in (NZB × NZW)F1 Mice and Reduce the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in Human Renal Cells. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2021 08; 73(8):1478-1488. PMID: 33559345.
      Citations:    
    9. Skydsgaard M, Dincer Z, Haschek WM, Helke K, Jacob B, Jacobsen B, Jeppesen G, Kato A, Kawaguchi H, McKeag S, Nelson K, Rittinghausen S, Schaudien D, Vemireddi V, Wojcinski ZW. International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND): Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Minipig. Toxicol Pathol. 2021 01; 49(1):110-228. PMID: 33393872.
      Citations:    
    10. Nguyen XX, Sanderson M, Helke K, Feghali-Bostwick C. Phenotypic Characterization of Transgenic Mice Expressing Human IGFBP-5. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 30; 22(1). PMID: 33396956.
      Citations:    
    11. Krupenko NI, Sharma J, Pediaditakis P, Helke KL, Hall MS, Du X, Sumner S, Krupenko SA. Aldh1l2 knockout mouse metabolomics links the loss of the mitochondrial folate enzyme to deregulation of a lipid metabolism observed in rare human disorder. Hum Genomics. 2020 11 09; 14(1):41. PMID: 33168096.
      Citations:    
    12. Helke KL, Wolfe AM, Smith AC, Swagel R, Gross RH, Yao H, McCrackin MA. Mulberry Heart Disease and Hepatosis Dietetica in Farm Pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus) in a Research Setting. Comp Med. 2020 08 01; 70(4):376-383. PMID: 32674751.
      Citations:    
    13. Farrand AQ, Verner RS, McGuire RM, Helke KL, Hinson VK, Boger HA. Differential effects of vagus nerve stimulation paradigms guide clinical development for Parkinson's disease. Brain Stimul. 2020 Sep - Oct; 13(5):1323-1332. PMID: 32629028.
      Citations:    
    14. Ring HL, Gao Z, Sharma A, Han Z, Lee C, Brockbank KGM, Greene ED, Helke KL, Chen Z, Campbell LH, Weegman B, Davis M, Taylor M, Giwa S, Fahy GM, Wowk B, Pagotan R, Bischof JC, Garwood M. Imaging the distribution of iron oxide nanoparticles in hypothermic perfused tissues. Magn Reson Med. 2020 05; 83(5):1750-1759. PMID: 31815324.
      Citations:    
    15. Krupenko NI, Sharma J, Pediaditakis P, Fekry B, Helke KL, Du X, Sumner S, Krupenko SA. Cytosolic 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase regulates glycine metabolism in mouse liver. Sci Rep. 2019 10 17; 9(1):14937. PMID: 31624291.
      Citations:    
    16. Farrand AQ, Helke KL, Aponte-Cofresí L, Gooz MB, Gregory RA, Hinson VK, Boger HA. Effects of vagus nerve stimulation are mediated in part by TrkB in a parkinson's disease model. Behav Brain Res. 2019 11 05; 373:112080. PMID: 31301412.
      Citations:    
    17. Beck TC, Reichel CM, Helke KL, Bhadsavle SS, Dix TA. Non-addictive orally-active kappa opioid agonists for the treatment of peripheral pain in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Aug 05; 856:172396. PMID: 31103632.
      Citations:    
    18. McDonald LT, Lopez MF, Helke KL, McCrackin MA, Cray JJ, Becker HC, LaRue AC. Early Blood Profile of C57BL/6 Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Stress. Front Psychiatry. 2019; 10:230. PMID: 31068843.
      Citations:    
    19. Grey ZJ, Howie RN, Durham EL, Hall SR, Helke KL, Steed MB, LaRue AC, Muise-Helmericks RC, Cray JJ. Sub-clinical dose of bone morphogenetic protein-2 does not precipitate rampant, sustained inflammatory response in bone wound healing. Wound Repair Regen. 2019 07; 27(4):335-344. PMID: 30805987.
      Citations:    
    20. Gross RH, Wu Y, Bonthius DJ, Gross V, Smith A, McCrackin MA, Wolfe M, Helke K, Gallien T, Yao H. Creation of a Porcine Kyphotic Model. Spine Deform. 2019 03; 7(2):213-219. PMID: 30660214.
      Citations:    
    21. Lee R, Del Papa N, Introna M, Reese CF, Zemskova M, Bonner M, Carmen-Lopez G, Helke K, Hoffman S, Tourkina E. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells in systemic sclerosis: Alterations in function and beneficial effect on lung fibrosis are regulated by caveolin-1. J Scleroderma Relat Disord. 2019 Jun; 4(2):127-136. PMID: 35382388.
      Citations:    
    22. Bredlau AL, Motamarry A, Chen C, McCrackin MA, Helke K, Armeson KE, Bynum K, Broome AM, Haemmerich D. Localized delivery of therapeutic doxorubicin dose across the canine blood-brain barrier with hyperthermia and temperature sensitive liposomes. Drug Deliv. 2018 Nov; 25(1):973-984. PMID: 29688083.
      Citations:    
    23. Panneer Selvam S, Roth BM, Nganga R, Kim J, Cooley MA, Helke K, Smith CD, Ogretmen B. Balance between senescence and apoptosis is regulated by telomere damage-induced association between p16 and caspase-3. J Biol Chem. 2018 06 22; 293(25):9784-9800. PMID: 29748384.
      Citations:    
    24. Steinkamp HM, Hathaway-Schrader JD, Chavez MB, Aartun JD, Zhang L, Jensen T, Shojaee Bakhtiari A, Helke KL, Stumpo DJ, Alekseyenko AV, Novince CM, Blackshear PJ, Kirkwood KL. Tristetraprolin Is Required for Alveolar Bone Homeostasis. J Dent Res. 2018 07; 97(8):946-953. PMID: 29514008.
      Citations:    
    25. Schutt SD, Wu Y, Tang CH, Bastian D, Nguyen H, Sofi MH, Zhang M, Liu C, Helke K, Wilson C, Schnapp LM, Del Valle JR, Hu CC, Yu XZ. Inhibition of the IRE-1a/XBP-1 pathway prevents chronic GVHD and preserves the GVL effect in mice. Blood Adv. 2018 02 27; 2(4):414-427. PMID: 29483082.
      Citations:    
    26. Helke K, Angel P, Lu P, Garrett-Mayer E, Ogretmen B, Drake R, Voelkel-Johnson C. Ceramide Synthase 6 Deficiency Enhances Inflammation in the DSS model of Colitis. Sci Rep. 2018 01 26; 8(1):1627. PMID: 29374263.
      Citations:    
    27. Killoy KM, Harlan BA, Pehar M, Helke KL, Johnson JA, Vargas MR. Decreased glutathione levels cause overt motor neuron degeneration in hSOD1WT over-expressing mice. Exp Neurol. 2018 04; 302:129-135. PMID: 29307609.
      Citations:    
    28. Scheffel MJ, Helke K, Lu P, Bowers JS, Ogretmen B, Garrett-Mayer E, Paulos CM, Voelkel-Johnson C. Adoptive Transfer of Ceramide Synthase 6 Deficient Splenocytes Reduces the Development of Colitis. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 14; 7(1):15552. PMID: 29138469.
      Citations:    
    29. Chatterjee S, Daenthanasanmak A, Chakraborty P, Wyatt MW, Dhar P, Selvam SP, Fu J, Zhang J, Nguyen H, Kang I, Toth K, Al-Homrani M, Husain M, Beeson G, Ball L, Helke K, Husain S, Garrett-Mayer E, Hardiman G, Mehrotra M, Nishimura MI, Beeson CC, Bupp MG, Wu J, Ogretmen B, Paulos CM, Rathmell J, Yu XZ, Mehrotra S. CD38-NAD+Axis Regulates Immunotherapeutic Anti-Tumor T Cell Response. Cell Metab. 2018 01 09; 27(1):85-100.e8. PMID: 29129787.
      Citations:    
    30. Farrand AQ, Helke KL, Gregory RA, Gooz M, Hinson VK, Boger HA. Vagus nerve stimulation improves locomotion and neuronal populations in a model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Stimul. 2017 Nov - Dec; 10(6):1045-1054. PMID: 28918943.
      Citations:    
    31. Wada M, Canals D, Adada M, Coant N, Salama MF, Helke KL, Arthur JS, Shroyer KR, Kitatani K, Obeid LM, Hannun YA. P38 delta MAPK promotes breast cancer progression and lung metastasis by enhancing cell proliferation and cell detachment. Oncogene. 2017 11 23; 36(47):6649-6657. PMID: 28783172.
      Citations:    
    32. Goodwin J, Neugent ML, Lee SY, Choe JH, Choi H, Jenkins DMR, Ruthenborg RJ, Robinson MW, Jeong JY, Wake M, Abe H, Takeda N, Endo H, Inoue M, Xuan Z, Yoo H, Chen M, Ahn JM, Minna JD, Helke KL, Singh PK, Shackelford DB, Kim JW. The distinct metabolic phenotype of lung squamous cell carcinoma defines selective vulnerability to glycolytic inhibition. Nat Commun. 2017 05 26; 8:15503. PMID: 28548087.
      Citations:    
    33. Lee R, Reese C, Carmen-Lopez G, Perry B, Bonner M, Zemskova M, Wilson CL, Helke KL, Silver RM, Hoffman S, Tourkina E. Deficient Adipogenesis of Scleroderma Patient and Healthy African American Monocytes. Front Pharmacol. 2017; 8:174. PMID: 28420992.
      Citations:    
    34. Helke KL, McCrackin MA, Galloway AM, Poole AZ, Salgado CD, Marriott BP. Effects of antimicrobial use in agricultural animals on drug-resistant foodborne salmonellosis in humans: A systematic literature review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017 Feb 11; 57(3):472-488. PMID: 27602884.
      Citations:    
    35. McCrackin MA, Helke KL, Galloway AM, Poole AZ, Salgado CD, Marriott BP. Effect of Antimicrobial Use in Agricultural Animals on Drug-resistant Foodborne Campylobacteriosis in Humans: A Systematic Literature Review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Oct 02; 56(13):2115-32. PMID: 26580432.
      Citations:    
    36. Farrand AQ, Gregory RA, Bäckman CM, Helke KL, Boger HA. Altered glutamate release in the dorsal striatum of the MitoPark mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2016 11 15; 1651:88-94. PMID: 27659966.
      Citations:    
    37. Banerjee A, Thyagarajan K, Chatterjee S, Chakraborty P, Kesarwani P, Soloshchenko M, Al-Hommrani M, Andrijauskaite K, Moxley K, Janakiraman H, Scheffel MJ, Helke K, Armenson K, Palanisamy V, Rubinstein MP, Mayer EG, Cole DJ, Paulos CM, Nishimura MI, Mehrotra S. Lack of p53 Augments Antitumor Functions in Cytolytic T Cells. Cancer Res. 2016 09 15; 76(18):5229-5240. PMID: 27466285.
      Citations:    
    38. Helke KL, Nelson KN, Sargeant AM, Jacob B, McKeag S, Haruna J, Vemireddi V, Greeley M, Brocksmith D, Navratil N, Stricker-Krongrad A, Hollinger C. Pigs in Toxicology: Breed Differences in Metabolism and Background Findings. Toxicol Pathol. 2016 06; 44(4):575-90. PMID: 27044377.
      Citations:    
    39. Bredlau AL, McCrackin MA, Motamarry A, Helke K, Chen C, Broome AM, Haemmerich D. Thermal Therapy Approaches for Treatment of Brain Tumors in Animals and Humans. Crit Rev Biomed Eng. 2016; 44(6):443-457. PMID: 29431091.
      Citations:    
    40. Helke KL, Nelson KN, Sargeant AM, Jacob B, McKeag S, Haruna J, Vemireddi V, Greeley M, Brocksmith D, Navratil N, Stricker-Krongrad A, Hollinger C. Background Pathological Changes in Minipigs: A Comparison of the Incidence and Nature among Different Breeds and Populations of Minipigs. Toxicol Pathol. 2016 Apr; 44(3):325-37. PMID: 26534940.
      Citations:    
    41. Brannick EM, DeWilde CA, Frey E, Gluckman TL, Keen JL, Larsen MR, Mont SL, Rosenbaum MD, Stafford JR, Helke KL. Taking stock and making strides toward wellness in the veterinary workplace. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2015 Oct 01; 247(7):739-42. PMID: 26383746.
      Citations:    
    42. Qi X, Li G, Liu D, Motamarry A, Huang X, Wolfe AM, Helke KL, Haemmerich D, Staveley-O'Carroll KF, Kimchi ET. Development of a radiofrequency ablation platform in a clinically relevant murine model of hepatocellular cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(12):1812-9. PMID: 26537481.
      Citations:    
    43. Farrand AQ, Gregory RA, Scofield MD, Helke KL, Boger HA. Effects of aging on glutamate neurotransmission in the substantia nigra of Gdnf heterozygous mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Mar; 36(3):1569-76. PMID: 25577412.
      Citations:    
    44. Oleinik NV, Helke KL, Kistner-Griffin E, Krupenko NI, Krupenko SA. Rho GTPases RhoA and Rac1 mediate effects of dietary folate on metastatic potential of A549 cancer cells through the control of cofilin phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2014 Sep 19; 289(38):26383-26394. PMID: 25086046.
      Citations:    
    45. Zhang Y, Helke KL, Coelho SG, Valencia JC, Hearing VJ, Sun S, Liu B, Li Z. Essential role of the molecular chaperone gp96 in regulating melanogenesis. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2014 Jan; 27(1):82-9. PMID: 24024552.
      Citations:    
    46. Helke KL, Queen SE, Mankowski JL. 14-3-3 Protein in CSF reflects SIV-mediated pre-synaptic damage. Curr HIV Res. 2013 Jun; 11(4):281-7. PMID: 24016180.
      Citations:    
    47. Authors of Document Swindle, M.M., Smith, A.C., Helke, K. . Recommendations for medical device implantation in swine. Source of the Document Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine. 2013; 68(1):3-11.
    48. Helke KL, Swindle MM. Animal models of toxicology testing: the role of pigs. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2013 Feb; 9(2):127-39. PMID: 23216131.
      Citations:    
    49. Kiefer T, Hirt C, Späth C, Schüler F, Al-Ali HK, Wolf HH, Herbst R, Maschmeyer G, Helke K, Kessler C, Niederwieser D, Busemann C, Schroeder H, Vogelgesang S, Kirsch M, Montemurro M, Krüger WH, Dölken G. Long-term follow-up of high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation and response-adapted whole-brain radiotherapy for newly diagnosed primary CNS lymphoma: results of the multicenter Ostdeutsche Studiengruppe Hamatologie und Onkologie OSHO-53 phase II study. Ann Oncol. 2012 Jul; 23(7):1809-12. PMID: 22115927.
      Citations:    
    50. Heffernan-Stroud LA, Helke KL, Jenkins RW, De Costa AM, Hannun YA, Obeid LM. Defining a role for sphingosine kinase 1 in p53-dependent tumors. Oncogene. 2012 Mar 01; 31(9):1166-75. PMID: 21765468.
      Citations:    
    51. Fortress AM, Buhusi M, Helke KL, Granholm AC. Cholinergic Degeneration and Alterations in the TrkA and p75NTR Balance as a Result of Pro-NGF Injection into Aged Rats. J Aging Res. 2011; 2011:460543. PMID: 21785728.
      Citations:    
    52. Mack JT, Helke KL, Normand G, Green C, Townsend DM, Tew KD. ABCA2 transporter deficiency reduces incidence of TRAMP prostate tumor metastasis and cellular chemotactic migration. Cancer Lett. 2011 Jan 28; 300(2):154-61. PMID: 21041019.
      Citations:    
    53. Boger HA, Mannangatti P, Samuvel DJ, Saylor AJ, Bender TS, McGinty JF, Fortress AM, Zaman V, Huang P, Middaugh LD, Randall PK, Jayanthi LD, Rohrer B, Helke KL, Granholm AC, Ramamoorthy S. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor on dopaminergic function and motor behavior during aging. Genes Brain Behav. 2011 Mar; 10(2):186-98. PMID: 20860702.
      Citations:    
    54. Gupta RG, Kelly KM, Helke KL, Queen SE, Karper JM, Dorsey JL, Brice AK, Adams RJ, Tarwater PM, Kolson DL, Mankowski JL. HIV and SIV induce alterations in CNS CaMKII expression and activation: a potential mechanism for cognitive impairment. Am J Pathol. 2010 Jun; 176(6):2776-84. PMID: 20382699.
      Citations:    
    55. Schutt DJ, Swindle MM, Helke KL, Bastarrika G, Schwarz F, Haemmerich D. Sequential activation of ground pads reduces skin heating during radiofrequency tumor ablation: in vivo porcine results. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2010 Mar; 57(3):746-53. PMID: 19822466.
      Citations:    
    56. Montemurro M, Kiefer T, Schüler F, Al-Ali HK, Wolf HH, Herbst R, Haas A, Helke K, Theilig A, Lotze C, Hirt C, Niederwieser D, Schwenke M, Krüger WH, Dölken G. Primary central nervous system lymphoma treated with high-dose methotrexate, high-dose busulfan/thiotepa, autologous stem-cell transplantation and response-adapted whole-brain radiotherapy: results of the multicenter Ostdeutsche Studiengruppe Hamato-Onkologie OSHO-53 phase II study. Ann Oncol. 2007 Apr; 18(4):665-71. PMID: 17185743.
      Citations:    
    57. Helke KL, Cooper TK, Mankowski JL, Poynton SL. Disseminated visceral coccidiosis in Indo-gangetic flap-shelled turtles, Lissemys punctata andersonii. J Wildl Dis. 2006 Oct; 42(4):788-96. PMID: 17255445.
      Citations:    
    58. Zink MC, Laast VA, Helke KL, Brice AK, Barber SA, Clements JE, Mankowski JL. From mice to macaques--animal models of HIV nervous system disease. Curr HIV Res. 2006 Jul; 4(3):293-305. PMID: 16842082.
      Citations:    
    59. Helke KL, Denver MC, Bronson E, Mankowski JL. Disseminate Cryptococcosis in a guenon (Cercopithecus ascanius). Vet Pathol. 2006 Jan; 43(1):75-8. PMID: 16407492.
      Citations:    
    60. Helke KL, Mankowski JL, Manabe YC. Animal models of cavitation in pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2006 Sep; 86(5):337-48. PMID: 16359922.
      Citations:    
    61. Nuermberger E, Helke K, Bishai WR. Low-dose aerosol model of pneumococcal pneumonia in the mouse: utility for evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005 Dec; 26(6):497-503. PMID: 16289711.
      Citations:    
    62. Helke KL, Queen SE, Tarwater PM, Turchan-Cholewo J, Nath A, Zink MC, Irani DN, Mankowski JL. 14-3-3 protein in CSF: an early predictor of SIV CNS disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005 Mar; 64(3):202-8. PMID: 15804051.
      Citations:    
    63. Helke KL, Poynton SL. Myxidium mackiei (Myxosporea) in Indo-Gangetic flap-shelled turtles Lissemys punctata andersonii: parasite-host interaction and ultrastructure. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005 Feb 28; 63(2-3):215-30. PMID: 15819437.
      Citations:    
    Helke's Networks
    Click the
    Explore
    buttons for more information and interactive visualizations!
    Concepts (404)
    Explore
    _
    Co-Authors (76)
    Explore
    _
    Similar People (60)
    Explore
    _
    Same Department Expand Description
    Explore
    _
    Physical Neighbors
    _